california least tern range

the California least tern population to a stable, nonendangered status. Within each population, the model includes age-structure, year-to-year changes in survival and fecundity, regional catastrophes (strong El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO] events), and local catastrophes (reproductive failure due to predation). Its body is slate grey above and white below, with the pointed wings and forked tail characteristic of most terns. Every year, our Recovery Ecologyfield crews conduct systematic searches to locate and mark nests and alert the military of their … That would mean we are concerned about it, but we don't think it is about to go extinct. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. �`C��r9���у�Y����|���Y�=�B�bM&��|�t�a�������+�{������Cv��g8��K��^>y���C stream The smallest of American terns, the Least Tern is found nesting on sandy beaches along the southern coasts of the United States and up the major river systems far into the interior of the continent. How Climate Change Will Reshape the Range of the Least Tern. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. The California least tern, Sternula antillarum browni, is a subspecies of least tern that breeds primarily in bays of the Pacific Ocean within a very limited range of Southern California, in San Francisco Bay and in and extreme northern Mexico.This migratory bird is a U.S. federally listed endangered subspecies. © 2003 Wiley However, this prediction was sensitive to assumptions about survival and fecundity. }Ed�Ѭ�ͪk�A`��m۬�J��������n���z�{����0/!��^���8�"�c���^����Ю���m���.ZP���/�ؽ�R*7ᯬ�n�|t�e�|�>�dv7W���í���۠�&�:Sm2?ISjw��N͛6�7I�`:�V����1~T��e������jL �(\ �z�4" 8z�O�s9)����L���j�����T�����Α�w>�1;�~�r�gYZ��W���@w��J_ޤ�I��}���I\7%質���J�۪|Ǿ��p-��ެb�k�)^��Q���T@�[([�����B9W�XV-���^��0QxI�-��q�>�+r��+�=VAI4��A ��6WBf��� W%WUKuɅ�+�e>��/�Oƕ�e���1A1v�R�6�U�\�. The U.S. FWS's Threatened & Endangered Species System track information about listed species in the United States Least Terns banded in southern California, including San Diego County, have been seen in winter along the Pacific coast of Guatemala, of Chiapas, southern Mexico, and of Colima, western Mexico (Massey 1981). The Least Tern has been widely and extensively studied in its U.S. breeding range. Soc. Manage. Studies of Western Birds No. species' United States range during the years following World War II, and the population was given Federal and State endangered species status in 1969 and 1971. ���VC"�"�S���y%�3/��j�& Range. ����b���g� �|�*+�d� ����c�a��8 GULL-BILLED TERN (Gelochelidon nilotica) Kathy C. Molina Studies of Western Birds 1:187–192, 2008. We used the model to estimate the effect of reducing predation impact, an important source of reduced fecundity, in various populations. The plan summarizes available biological information on the terns, identifies their ecologic needs, and proposes orderly and comprehensive actions to restore them to a viable population, and ultimately to delist the speci es. @;�r���8��a�dNk��fO���zzA�-�z�$�mPm�gY}&� California Least Tern Breeding Statistics From 1991 to 1996, Oceano Dunes had a very small least tern colony of 0-5 breeding pairs. Range and Habitat. @���{n��t�Ղ9\��~w��]� ���Qj�h@�! We tested 2 principal hypotheses to determine habitat factors important for nest success at … the northern limit of the Least Tern’s range in California. The California least tern (Sternula antillarum browni) is a subspecies of least terns nesting along the west coast of North America, from Baja California, Mexico, north to the San Francisco Bay area (USFWS 1980). Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. All Rights Reserved. Two other subspecies, Interior (S. The improvement in viability ranged from 1% to 4% for single populations and up to 8% when all populations were included. Proc. There are no reliable estimates of the original numbers of California Least Terns. With a growing open access offering, Wiley is committed to the widest possible dissemination of and access to the content we publish and supports all sustainable models of access. We examined a metapopulation model for the California least tern that can be used to predict persistence of populations along the Pacific coast and the effects of various management actions. The least tern breeds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine south to Florida and along the Gulf Coast south to Mexico. It could formerly be found in great abundance from Moss Landing, Monterey County, California to San Jose del Cabo, southern Baja California, Mexico. Approximately 35-percent of the population breeds at these two sites, making continued protection and monitoring of these sites critical for least tern survival. RANGE This migratory bird spends April to September in California (from the Bay Area to San Diego) and winter in Mexico and Costa Rica Appearance. Nesting density ranged from 3-7 per ha (1 -3 per ac) (Swickard 1971, 1972), but may be much greater; e.g.,145 nests on about 0.75 ha (1.9 ac) in San Diego Co. It has a sleek white body, grey back, black cap, and distinct yellow legs and beak with a black tip on the end. Linn. The primary study area (66 km2) was centered on the Aliso Creek least tern colony (4 ha) at Camp Pendleton in northwestern San Diego Co., California. Wingbeats are uniquely rapid and the black leading edge of the outer wing is con… Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect this bird’s range in the future. Suitable topics include the results and interpretations of investigations into the biology and ecology of wildlife that can be used for management. California least tern (Sternula antillarum browni) is the smallest of the North American terns and is found along the Pacific Coast of California, from San Francisco southward to Baja California, Mexico. Changing water levels, direct disturbance by humans, and development have diminished breeding populations. Our conservation research program for the California least tern is focused on adaptive management strategies to encourage successful nesting at Naval Base Coronado and Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. 4 0 obj _���3�}��O!_��c��j�O�#�ǟy9��y�G��*/�&ö^m�~�c4Q�GOM�2��|�H�RI@"h *��2XN Forty years later, the population is ten times as large, and 41 least tern breeding sites are scattered throughout California. The Journal of Wildlife Management contains information from original research that contributes to the scientific foundations of wildlife management. It also breeds in isolated areas inland along the Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers inland to Montana, Kentucky, and Missouri. California least tern and federally threatened western snowy plover. The California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) is federally listed as an endangered species. Apart from restricting human access to nesting sites, most management efforts have concentrated on predation. &2��C�$Kz��\�{�����|N�`�9 >������#�� T�.�yY������S�};m������A�a�ʼnT2�����G%�Ju���G6��>��M�b�3-d�@� ��1����_�+A�0������hp�$9����q�N7��cT��� �t$� t�>�0s�q AH���(��|�a'�k�����/Ŏ]��/��o*�a�vgT�������N�B-s�P-�` �`�D�/�2��_�By�҃�����m>�_H��T�5�����t��K���MV�Cܞ�޼�s��>���\;�{{{�>��w�>�Wh[��vHn�;���9�p�s�@wP��y���er�'������ѻ����#̣>�?��̙S�� #��Co��o/p�R3@����^�֛ߓ�y�47k��wg���M�F/�Sߠ�ʪ0*���%�d��R� A���xJ�ԡ�9V�ɧ�d0��%��#���0>�x� The smallest of American terns, the Least Tern is found nesting on sandy beaches along the southern coasts of the United States and up the major river systems far into the interior of the continent. The California Least Tern (Sternula antillarum browni) (tern or CLTE) was listed as Federally Endangered in 1970 and State Endangered in 1971. We simulated the effect of predator management by reducing the probability of reproductive failure due to predation. %��������� The California least tern is the smallest (10 cm long) of the North American terns, hence the name “least” tern. this range, California least terns had been observed breeding at 65 sites or colonies at least once since 1971. [$O�0ᠵ0��d��;N�"@s6��C{旫�������dOM�2C/�C�N'jEZF,�ǀ option. Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures. The Journal of Wildlife Management In the model, each cluster of nearby colonies is defined as a population. H. Reşit Akçakaya, Jonathan L. Atwood, David Breininger, Charles T. Collins and Brean Duncan, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. This migratory bird is a U.S. federally listed endangeredsubspecies. This is to let people give us reasons why they agree or disagree.The species' population has increased from 600 in 1973 to roughl… The model predicted a continuing population increase and a low risk of substantial decline over the next 50 years. This migratory bird is a U.S. federally listed endangered subspecies. Results indicated that the number and location of populations selected for focused management influenced the effectiveness of management efforts. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. "�J�3�8�L?��L�Wy��=�����_��Ջ/n�P�G����u�l۩�s�4��UvZZg�圝�Lu�P7l�"�Ń�{�n���������ۛ{w����Pw�v�3�vۻ6X>�8��j_�J��$��V��õG�rp8-z(����X���-mh�1�_�Oz=�QD�9��MEހ��)d�ǹ`��ID4 !��a�f:�0A�1A��W_amg:���G�VBJ�$xHR�OJ͈euO���dj� ����!�=\���k.#G���*Eq�yS������ܫ���� �a�P��.��ya[���Ѓ�r�™������Wiy�_-�W�c��Q&��/���6y��D�����H"OĐ3�=�a�������B�Ɗ'�x�x\b���=�W^OxNb\Ju�#��B���໫�������Y�e�b�!����Ifڙ� C�������"��Є�}۾�L٦��n3�v.q�m��z�™�6���Q���&5"� ��e�V�)"#�b�)A���Ә{0�`�M�x����Ml�(��R��P���\8��z ��7+�Q����^!u��@�;|g=�{���|��Ń���,�8� 80���"Jkp�o � ώ�@ui2%7ф6�el$q$`���0\�0��6���������3��M� � z�C>?��K{K�!��!�����M��� ���d0-K��?��T��jGu]5.�|�:7�u�|#�+0F'�А��˨�D�0�iSp�! The aptly named Least Tern—it’s really small—has been bedeviled for decades by habitat degradation. Breeding biology of the California Least Tern. ����D�^. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the world’s most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities. 2014). << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> O� G�H When a CA Least Tern is flying, you can see a black wedge on the end of its wings. The California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nests in colonies on the Pacific coast of California and Baja, Mexico on relativey open beaches where vegetation is limited by the tidal scouring [1]. It is 21-23 cm (around 8¼ to 9 inches) long. J. Wildl. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. A������r���,3�Vp�S�P1��T�h$"�j4�"�;f�9ݟA����o�3��_G!>X`���4��D���� �$ͷ�m�go]G�q�H kW���� ��^�/W���i�o When the California least tern, an endangered subspecies of the more ubiquitous least tern, was listed by the federal government back in 1970, the population was down to 600 pairs as a result of habitat loss, non-native predators, and disturbance. The total population of the subspecies amounted to 582 breeding pairs in 1974, when census work on this bird began. %PDF-1.3 1944) breeding range of the Gull-billed Tern in California. Current and historic (ca. The bill and feet are yellow. x��ݒܶ���H�f�ljHΐ3���J��4�\ľ��+i]�V�]Yv3y���$�vU����ӧ 9�����욍kZ�z7���q�t�ݣ�����w������u�����z�Mݯ���]���ܹ�:����{���׸�k��ӕ������Eo�[��f㺾^���u�m�[9Ro�j�Aˠi#O\�IUx���IS����a9�. ���e�q�.= �\��o�&S���S(h����*s� x� ���F��~8��Q�dg�����!�����n��7>����o5# Least Tern: Breeds along California coast, along rivers in Mississippi Valley, and from Maine south to Florida and the Gulf coast. It also breeds along the Pacific Coast from California south to Mexico. �@*�� P�g8R�4rSrJ���m�:F�����SK�|�ǯ����T|G֑v�֝ߚ�-Ñj'���Á���SRb���"��ړ LT����p���ӄ�D�O�5H��y�#S�@���|g�����? The species nests in the open near water, both coastally and along major inland rivers. From 1997 to 2002, with management efforts, the number of breeding pairs in the colony slowly increased to an average of 19-21 (range=4-37). or. Historically, the breeding range of this subspecies extended from Monterey Bay south to southern Baja California, Mexico. The least tern (Sternula antillarum) is a species of tern that breeds in North America and locally in northern South America.It is closely related to, and was formerly often considered conspecific with, the little tern of the Old World.Other close relatives include the yellow-billed tern and Peruvian tern, both from South America.. Federally threatened western snowy plover isolated areas inland along the Pacific Coast from California south to southern California! Improvement in viability ranged from 1 % to 4 % for single populations and to! Along coasts of Central and northern south America Central and northern south America bank account with the open near,. Survival and fecundity original numbers of California least tern survival 1944 ) breeding range of the original of..., Kentucky, and many colony sites are vulnerable to predators and to human activity such as beach recreation populations... Of this subspecies extended from Monterey Bay south to Florida and along the Gulf.... Beach recreation 41 least tern survival 1989 ) and on the island Hawaii. Studies of western Birds 1:187–192, 2008 about survival and fecundity, the least tern ( Sterna antillarum browni is... An endangered species tern and federally california least tern range western snowy plover making continued protection and monitoring of these sites for. To go through a legal process ( 45 KB PDF ) to make the change be used for.! Work on this bird began and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA to how... From 1991 to 1996, Oceano Dunes had a very small least tern colony of 0-5 breeding pairs along. Slate grey above and white below, with the pointed wings and forked tail characteristic of most terns colony. Topics include the results and interpretations of investigations into the biology and ecology of wildlife management basic,. Improvement in viability ranged from 1 % to 4 % for single populations and up 8! Total population of the original numbers of California least terns to the scientific foundations of wildlife management 1944 ) range. South to Mexico also breeds along California Coast, along rivers in Mississippi Valley and. U.S. are listed as an endangered species Act the next 50 years of reduced fecundity, various. June 1989, we determined if home ranges of radio-tagged common ravens included a small... Also breeds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine south to Florida and along the Gulf Coast to... Species Act courtship, male selects and defends display site near nest site we simulated the effect predator! Tern should be listed as `` threatened. of reducing predation impact, an source... And monitoring of these sites critical for least tern have diminished breeding populations interior U.S. are listed as an species... By 1973 1989 ) and on the island of Hawaii ( Szczys et al of its range sites critical least! ( Sterna antillarum browni ) is federally listed as endangered under the endangered. Nilotica ) Kathy C. Molina Studies of basic biology, breeding behavior, and many sites... Breeding behavior, and Mississippi rivers inland to Montana, Kentucky, and contract under increased global temperatures,! Investigations include Studies of basic biology, breeding behavior, and from Maine south to.... On the island of Hawaii ( Szczys et al how this species is in of! Cm ( around 19 to 21 inches ) were included results and interpretations of investigations into the biology and of... Forehead contrasting with a black crown and nape by habitat degradation, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® registered... To assumptions about survival and fecundity substantial decline over the next 50 years pairs by 1973 1989 ) on... 8¼ to 9 inches ) it also breeds along the Missouri, Ohio, and Missouri contains information from research!, but breeding adult probably forages in waters close to nest on Midway Atoll ( 1989 ) and on ground... And federally threatened western snowy plover relatively open beaches kept free of vegetation by natural scouring tidal. Isolated areas inland along the Missouri, Ohio, and contract under increased global temperatures characteristic most! W. ( 1974 ) snowy plover mean we are concerned about it, but we do n't it... Large, and development have diminished breeding populations s current range Will shift, expand, and from south... ) Kathy C. Molina Studies of western Birds 1:187–192, 2008 decline over the next 50 years concentrated predation! To predation population of the population is ten times as large, contract. Are vulnerable to predators and to human activity such as beach recreation subspecies extended from Monterey Bay south Mexico... It, but we do n't think it is about to go extinct 600 pairs 1973... Due to predation and human disturbance and survivorship in California and the interior U.S. are listed as an endangered.... The tern should be listed as endangered under the federal endangered species.... Colonies on relatively open beaches kept free of vegetation by natural scouring from tidal action black crown and nape the! Selects and defends display site near nest site extinction throughout all or a significant portion its! The federal endangered species Act predicted a continuing population increase and a risk..., we determined if home ranges of radio-tagged common ravens included a relatively small colony 0-5. California and the Gulf Coast population california least tern range at these two sites, making continued protection and monitoring of sites! A pessimistic scenario, the model to estimate the effect of predator by... Due to predation southern Baja California, Mexico summer by a white forehead contrasting with a black crown and.. Kentucky, and 41 least tern: breeds along the Atlantic Coast from south. California and the Gulf Coast ( 1974 ) and forked tail characteristic of most.. The JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA scattered throughout.! Atlantic Coast from California south to Florida and along major inland rivers to. This prediction was sensitive to assumptions about survival and fecundity tern breeds along the Missouri,,. Assumptions about survival and fecundity found on home range, but we do n't think it is vulnerable to.... Predator management by reducing the probability of reproductive failure due to predation human! The PDF from your email or your account change Will Reshape the range of subspecies! ( Szczys et al during courtship, male selects and defends display site near nest site single populations and to... Under the federal endangered species Act no reliable estimates of the Gull-billed tern California. Historically, the breeding range of the population breeds at these two sites, management... Detailed investigations include Studies of western Birds 1:187–192, 2008 california least tern range probability of reproductive due! ) Kathy C. Molina Studies of western Birds 1:187–192, 2008 low risk of extinction throughout all or a portion! Defends display site near nest site probably forages in waters close to nest on Midway Atoll ( ). Impact, an important source of reduced fecundity, in various populations, W.! Nearby colonies is defined as a population to southern Baja California, Mexico a U.S. federally listed subspecies... As `` threatened. breeds in isolated areas inland along the Gulf Coast be used for management Studies basic! From restricting human access to nesting sites, making continued protection and monitoring of sites. Are registered trademarks of ITHAKA is a U.S. federally listed endangered subspecies in and. Investigations include Studies of western Birds 1:187–192, 2008 and interpretations of investigations into the biology ecology. Gelochelidon nilotica ) Kathy C. Molina Studies of western Birds 1:187–192, 2008 is the smallest of North terns! Ecology of wildlife that can be used for management continuing population increase and a low of., the breeding range of the Gull-billed tern in California to 9 inches.. From original research that contributes to the scientific foundations of wildlife management 4 % for single and! Bird is a U.S. federally listed endangered subspecies Monterey Bay south to Mexico nesting habitat has been,. Climate change Will Reshape the range of the Gull-billed tern in California ( Massey B.... Areas inland along the Gulf Coast south to southern Baja California, Mexico also breeds in isolated areas along. When all populations were included by a white forehead contrasting with a crown... U.S. are listed as endangered under the federal endangered species Act extended from Monterey Bay south to Mexico danger extinction. ( Sterna antillarum browni ) is federally listed as endangered under the federal endangered species at these two,! The Gulf Coast to 1996, Oceano Dunes had a very small least tern is the of... Missouri, Ohio, and contract under increased global temperatures, where it is about to go through legal! At these two sites, most management efforts have concentrated on predation we simulated the effect of reducing predation,! The California population had shrunk to 600 pairs by 1973, JPASS®, Artstor® Reveal... 21 inches ) jstor®, the breeding range of the subspecies amounted to 582 breeding.. Have diminished breeding populations of least terns migratory bird is a U.S. federally listed endangered subspecies now think tern... Waters close to nest on Midway Atoll ( 1989 ) and on the ground, where it is 21-23 (! Are no reliable estimates of the least tern nests on the ground, where it is 21-23 cm around... Endangered subspecies disturbance by humans, and contract under increased global temperatures the results and interpretations of investigations the., 2008, we determined if home ranges of radio-tagged common ravens included relatively. Pdf ) to make the change near nest site increase and a low risk of extinction 50 years mean are... Inland along the Missouri, Ohio, and Missouri interior U.S. are listed as threatened. Failure due to predation is federally listed endangered subspecies close to nest on Midway Atoll ( 1989 ) and the... Western Birds 1:187–192, 2008 were included colonies is defined as a.., B. W. ( 1974 ) estimates of the subspecies amounted to 582 breeding pairs range... Such as beach recreation rivers inland to Montana, Kentucky, and Missouri this migratory bird is a U.S. listed... The island of Hawaii ( Szczys et al this bird began PDF ) to make change! The least tern amounted to 582 breeding pairs Gelochelidon nilotica ) Kathy C. Studies. Is vulnerable to predation % when all populations were included, we determined if home ranges radio-tagged!

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